History of England to the United Kingdom

History of England to the United Kingdom

In the article, you would get in to know the brief history of England. A journey of England from England to the United Kingdom.

You must have listened to the names such as Great Britain, the UK, the United Kingdom, and England used for the same country. However, all these names are used for different boundaries. The United Kingdom is a group of many countries. It comprises England, Wales, Scotland, and the northern portion of the island of Ireland. Wales, England, and Scotland together are called Great Britain whereas all four countries together are called Britain. The UK is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.

Origin of England

Roman rule ended in Britain by the fourth century. Different tribes such as the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisian were concentrated in the southern part of the island. Apart from these migrated tribes, there was some indigenous population called Britons who were attacked by some northern tribes. They sought help from the Saxons. After defeating invading tribes, the Saxons started a war with the Britons.  These tribes remained in the fight for dominance for centuries. In the 9th century, Alfred the Great, the West Saxon king defeated the Vikings. Vikings were Scandinavian raiders. After Alfred, his successors expanded the territories and King Atheiston became the first king o rule the territories which are called England.

Inclusion of Wales

In 1066, the struggle for the kingdom of England intensified. Some French provinces attacked England, which is known as the Norman Conquest of England. In 1075, Normans got the opportunity to seize North Wales due to the ongoing civil war in North Wales. Norman had almost captured Wales, but there was a revolt against Norman which was successful, and gradually, Wales’ rulers started re-captured territories. The tussle between Wales’s rulers and England’s Norman rulers continued for a long. Finally, Wales was annexed by England in 1283 and Wales became the first colony of England.   

Union of Scotland and Kingdom of England

There was a continuous war between England and Scotland. The Treaty of Perpetual was signed in 1502 to stop this warfare. The marriage of King Henry’s daughter and the son of King James was also part of the peace treaty. In the absence of Elizabeth I’s successor, King James VI succeeded the throne of England in 1603.  History reminds this moment as the union of crowns. Acts of Union were passed in 1707 to unify England and Scotland.

Unification of Ireland

Ireland was divided into many small kingdoms till the 12th century. Normans tried to capture Ireland and England did not like this move. Prince John Lockland of England was made the lord of Ireland and the people of Ireland were forced to be loyal to the lord. In the Mid-14th century, the deadliest plague pandemic broke out, and 7 to 20 crore English and Normans died consequently Irish rose after the pandemic. To stop the rebellion in Ireland, King Henry decided to re-conquer Ireland. Ireland announced the full kingdom in 1541. After many uprisings, the Act of Union 1800 was passed. This act formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As a result of the Home Rule Movement, the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed in 1921, and Ireland was declared a free state. The people of Northern Ireland chose to become part of the “United Kingdom.” Hence the United Kingdom was formed.

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